Rationing & Coupons During. World War II. World War II began in September but until mid, goods including clothes, butter, sugar and tea were in.
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- Sugar Ration Coupon WWII | Food & Drink Art | Wwii, 8th grade history, History class
- Anne Frank
Then, you passed over the money for that purchase. If you had used up all the coupons for an item for that week, or points for that 4 week period, then that was that until the next time period. No amount of money could get you the items in question. The campaign was led by an agricultural economist, Professor John Raeburn, who was recruited to the Ministry of Food in , and who would run the campaign until the end of the war.
The campaign encouraged people to transform their front and back gardens into vegetable plots.
The goal was to replace imported food, thus freeing up shipping space for more valuable war materials, and to make up for food that was sunk in transit. By the end of , , tons of food making its way to Britain had been lost, sunk by German submarine activity. In , millions of commercially-farmed hens had to be killed and sold off as food, as there was a shortage of stuff to feed them. This led to an egg shortage, and egg rationing of 1 egg per person a week. Expectant mothers and vegetarians were allowed two eggs a week.
The catch was, you had to give up your egg ration, but you got entitlement for grain rations instead for your chickens. The Savoy Hotel in London had its own chicken farm, set up by Hugh Wontner, managing director of the Savoy hotel from to This supplied the Savoy with its own unrationed source of chicken and eggs.
They were still required to ration them on their restaurant menus to customers, however. Pig clubs added thousands of pounds of pork to tables. Even soldiers at permanent stations had pig clubs. Communities set up neighbourhood Pig Clubs, to buy a pig, then feed it scraps from the households involved. If you belonged to a Pig Club, that was registered, and you had to give up your meat coupons. If you kept a private pig, you had to register the pig, because half was supposed to go to the government, but not everyone registered their pigs.
Rabbit keeping also became popular.
Sugar Ration Coupon WWII | Food & Drink Art | Wwii, 8th grade history, History class
They provided a ready source of meat, as they breed year round, and you could even sell the rabbit skin to be used for boots, coats, etc. In , the Americans sent 9 tons of vegetable seeds over through the British War Relief Society for the British public to use in their home gardens. Most vegetables were not rationed; cauliflower became a staple vegetable at meals.
Commercial fertilizers for gardens had of course disappeared at the start of the war, so whenever a delivery cart and horse, or a police horse, happened to pass by a house, mothers would send many a humiliated child out to the road with a bucket and shovel in the hopes that the passing horse had left a calling card in the form of some manure.
During the war, daylight savings was put ahead by two hours every year in March, to allow more daylight hours for farming, and gardening after work. The campaign was still kept up after the war, in order to free up food to feed the starving populations of Europe. The goal was to ensure that homefront agricultural food production was maintained.
It was disbanded at the end of that war. It was volunteer at first; some women worked part-time, seasonally as needed. Later, conscription of girls over 16 was used to bolster the ranks. The work was 48 hours a week in the winter; 50 to 54 hours a week in the summer. Some lived with the farming families; on larger farms, some were given accommodation in special cabins built for them. Some were placed near to where they lived, so returned home each day. Women who participated felt that they never really got much recognition; a ceremony was finally held in June in which then Prime Minister Gordon Brown presented badges to some of the veterans still living at the time.
These were the days before refrigeration and freezing was common in household kitchens and not just Britain — the refrigerator revolution did not sweep America until the late s , so housewives still knew and used preservation techniques such as canning. The Ministry of Food educated people with leaflets, radio programmes and community demonstrations on the latest and greatest food preserving techniques, to ensure that no food went to waste. Eggs could be kept fresher for a bit longer by rubbing them with lard to seal the pores, or for longer periods, by storing them in crocks under water with isinglass or waterglass mixed in, or by turning them into pickled eggs.
Preserving of fruits and vegetables was largely done in Kilner jars: glass jars with glass lids with a spring on them.
You put a rubber ring around the neck of each jar before sealing it. You replaced the rubber rings each season. Many people started saving up their sugar rations right at the start of the summer to help with canning time. Some years, during the summer, the Ministry of Food was able to double the sugar rations to encourage home preserving.
The Ministry of Food also advised people on how to cure and preserve meat. Pork or lamp chops could be preserved for up to six weeks by first cooking them, and then putting them in a crock completely covered with fat. Carrots were particularly promoted to the population, as there was no shortage of them, and they were deemed very healthy.
The Ministry of Food suggested Carrolade a homemade juice blend from mixed carrot and Swede juices , carrot jam, curried carrots, etc.
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The drawings were wire-photoed to London, courtesy of RCA. The characters were used in newspaper campaigns, recipe booklets, posters and flyers. The character acquired his own song, recorded by a woman named Betty Driver, later to become famous for portraying Betty Williams in Coronation Street, who in turn would become famous for her potato dish, Lancashire Hotpot.
The Ministry recommended scrubbing potatoes clean instead of peeling them, as peeling caused wastage, however small. One of the most famous dishes invented during the war was Woolton Pie, for the purpose of promoting root vegetables in general. It was created by Francois Latry , the chef at the Savoy Hotel in London, and named in honour of the Minister of Food himself. The pie consists of carrots, turnips, parsnips and potatoes simmered in an oatmeal stock, then turned into a baking dish, topped with a crust of dough, or mashed potato, and baked.
Sadly, despite all the promotion that the recipe was launched with, the dish never really took off in popularity amongst the public. The Ministry of Food actually invented several food products, and legislated their production to substitute for other goods.
All were a success in terms of keeping the population healthy and fed. Sadly, not all were a success in terms of endearing themselves to the tastebuds of the population.
White flour was banned for the most part for household use [Ed: it was still allowed commercially in the production of some biscuits, etc. While not quite wholewheat flour in order to be a bit of a compromise , it left all the bran in it. It was greyish in colour. Some women in desperation would sieve it through their nylon stockings to get white flour; if you kept chickens, the bran sieved out could go to make a ration-free mash for the chickens. Bakers were obliged to use the National Flour to make only one type of bread, which was called the National Loaf.
Fresh, fluid milk was limited, so the Ministry of Food created two different types of powdered milk. There was a National Butter made, to help replace the reduced butter supplies from New Zealand. As well, there was a National Margarine: in fact two types, a standard and a special which was, in theory, of slightly better quality than the standard, though some people said even it tasted like melted candles. Some people would mix it with their butter ration for better taste at the table.
Ed: see separate entry on National Margarine. A National Cheddar was made, and the production of any other cheese banned. It would take the British cheese industry decades to recover. See separate entry on British Cheeses. One packet of the powdered, dried egg was the equivalent of one dozen eggs. Meat, of course, did not escape rationing, and in fact, was the last thing to come off the ration list, in Offal and sausages were only rationed from to But offal was still scarce for the few that wanted it at any price , and the sausages had little meat in them, and much filler.
Meat pies were not rationed, though the meat in them was likely to be Spam. Spam from America was plentiful, and came to be seen as a godsend. Spam for meals would be fried in a frying pan, or battered and fried in oil with chips. Consequently, there were always very long queues outside fishmongers. At the same time, the Ministry of Food made whale meat available off-ration as well, and encouraged people to eat it, releasing recipes, etc. There was a National Butter and two types of National Margarine.
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Before the war, a middle-class British household tended to put butter on the table, and reserve margarine for cooking purposes. But because the rations for the margarines were more generous than for the butter, margarine worked its way out of the kitchen and into the dining room.